|Carol Ann Duffy - study guide|
This guide is written for students and teachers who are preparing for GCSE exams in English literature. It contains detailed studies of the poems by Carol Ann Duffy in the AQA Anthology, which is a set text for the AQA's GCSE syllabuses for English and English Literature Specification A, from the 2004 exam onwards.
The guide gives detailed readings of poems by Carol Ann Duffy, with ideas for study. For a general introduction to poetry in the Anthology with extensive guidance for students and teachers, then please see the Introduction to the Anthology by clicking on the link below. For a reading of some other poems by Ms. Duffy, in the previous Anthology, follow the links below:
On this page I use red type for emphasis. Brown type is used where italics would appear in print (in this screen font, italic looks like this, and is unkind on most readers). Headings have their own hierarchical logic, too:
About the poet
Carol Ann Duffy was born on December 23 1955, in Glasgow, Scotland's largest city. Carol Ann was the eldest child, and had four brothers. She was brought up in Stafford, in the north midlands, where her father was a local councillor, a parliamentary candidate for the Labour Party in 1983 and manager of Stafford FC, an amateur football team. Carol Ann Duffy was educated at St. Austin Roman Catholic Primary School, St. Joseph's Convent School and Stafford Girls' High School. In 1974 she went Liverpool University, where she read philosophy.
She has worked as a freelance writer in London, after which she moved to live in Manchester, where she currently (2002) teaches creative writing at the Metropolitan University. Her first collection of poetry was Standing Female Nude (1985), followed by Selling Manhattan (1987), The Other Country (1990), Mean Time (1993), The World's Wife (1999) and The Feminine Gospels (2002). She has also written two English versions of Grimm's folk tales, and a pamphlet, A Woman's Guide to Gambling, which reflects her interest in betting.
Of her own writing she has said:
I'm not interested, as a poet, in words like 'plash' - Seamus Heaney words, interesting words. I like to use simple words but in a complicated way.
She has a daughter, Ella (born in 1995) and lives in Manchester with her partner, the novelist Jackie Kay. Carol Ann Duffy was awarded an OBE in 1995, and a CBE in 2002.
This poem is a monologue spoken by Miss Havisham, a character in Dickens' Great Expectations. Jilted by her scheming fiancé, she continues to wear her wedding dress and sit amid the remains of her wedding breakfast for the rest of her life, while she plots revenge on all men. She hates her spinster state - of which her unmarried family name constantly reminds her (which may explain the choice of title for the poem).
She begins by telling the reader the cause of her troubles - her phrase beloved sweetheart bastard is a contradiction in terms (called an oxymoron). She tells us that she has prayed so hard (with eyes closed and hands pressed together) that her eyes have shrunk hard and her hands have sinews strong enough to strangle with - which fits her murderous wish for revenge. (Readers who know Dickens' novel well might think at this point about Miss Havisham's ward, Estella - her natural mother, Molly, has strangled a rival, and has unusually strong hands.)
Miss Havisham is aware of her own stink - because she does not ever change her clothes nor wash. She stays in bed and screams in denial. At other times she looks and asks herself who did this to her? She sometimes dreams almost tenderly or erotically of her lost lover, but when she wakes the hatred and anger return. Thinking of how she stabbed at the wedding cake she now wants to work out her revenge on a male corpse - presumably that of her lover.
The poem is written in four stanzas which are unrhymed. Many of the lines run on, and the effect is like normal speech. The poet
Sometimes the meaning is clear, but other lines are more open - and there are hints of violence in strangle, bite, bang and stabbed. It is not clear what exactly Miss Havisham would like to do on her long slow honeymoon, but we can be sure that it is not pleasant.
Note: Don't go any further if you want to read Great Expectations without knowing the plot. If you don't mind finding out, then click here.
Elvis's Twin Sister
The poem has two subtitles. The first is a line from Elvis Presley's 1961 hit song Are You Lonesome Tonight? The second is a statement by the female singer Madonna.
Elvis Presley did not have a twin sister in reality but the sister whom Carol Ann Duffy imagines for him is very different from Madonna. Instead she is modest and simple, though with a cheerful character, rather like Elvis's public persona.
The poem plays on the humorous contrast between the life, manners and dress of the nun, and the flamboyance of rock and roll. For example, despite her nun's vow, Sister Presley swings her hips in the same way as Elvis, though perhaps without the same effect. She wears a habit and carries a rosary, but she also has the blue suede shoes immortalized by Elvis's 1956 rendition of the song of this name (written and first recorded by Carl Perkins). The Gregorian chant (sung unaccompanied) has simple melodies, like Elvis's songs, but is otherwise very different in its calm and gentle mood, and its Christian lyrics. In the early days of Rock and Roll, its critics called it the Devil's music.
The sister identifies the convent with Elvis's home, Graceland. In this case the wordplay is not really Carol Ann Duffy's invention - Elvis chose the name Graceland because of his own Christian belief. Her exclamation Lawdy is a popular version of Praise the Lord.
Perhaps the biggest difference between sister and brother, though, is that, among the sisters of the convent, no one is ever lonesome - and it is a long time since she walked/down Lonely Street/towards Heartbreak Hotel. (This is another reference to Elvis's music - he recorded Heartbreak Hotel in 1956. Elvis is listed as co-writer of this and many of his other hits, but did not really write it. His manager, Colonel Tom Parker, insisted that Elvis have his name added so that he would receive writing royalties.)
The form of the poem is quite regular - five line stanzas with occasional rhymes. Sometimes these are quite amusing as when Duffy uses the Southern sound of y'all to rhyme with soul and rock and roll. The references to the song lyrics give it an air of authenticity - though this is quite lightly done (Elvis has a huge catalogue that the poet might be tempted to raid.)
The poem is a light-hearted exploration of ideas of fame, friendship and family. It begs the question whether it is better to have been Elvis (or even Madonna) or his sister - is fame better than modest contentment, great wealth better than friends?
Note: Pascha nostrum immolatus est is the name of a Latin hymn - of the kind called Gregorian chant, after Pope Gregory I (50-604 AD). The chant takes its title from a line in St. Paul's first letter to the Corinthians, in the Vulgate Latin version translated by St. Jerome. In English, it means, Our passover is sacrificed - St. Paul uses the phrase to refer, not to the Jewish festival of Passover (when each family would kill a lamb) but to Jesus, who was killed at the Passover feast, which we now celebrate as Easter. A modern translation gives this as: Our paschal [Easter] lamb, Christ, has been sacrificed.
Anne Hathaway (1556-1623) was a real woman - famous for being the wife of William Shakespeare. (We do know some things about her - she was nine years older than her husband, but outlived him by seven years. They married in 1582, when Anne was already pregnant, and had three children together. Although Shakespeare spent many years working in London, he made frequent visits to their home in Stratford-upon-Avon.)
In the poem Anne sees her relationship with Shakespeare in terms of his own writing. She uses the sonnet form (though she does not follow all the conventions of rhyme or metre) which Shakespeare favoured. She suggests that as lovers they were as inventive as Shakespeare was in his dramatic poetry - and their bed might contain forests, castles, torchlight, clifftops and seas where he would dive for pearls. These images are very obviously erotic, and Ms. Duffy no doubt expects the reader to interpret them in a sexual sense. Where Shakespeare's words were shooting stars (blazing in glory across the sky) for her there was the more down-to-earth consequence of kisses/on these lips.
She also finds in the dramatist's technique of rhyme...echo...assonance a metaphor for his physical contact - a verb (action) which danced in the centre of her noun. Though the best bed was reserved for the guests, they only dribbled prose (inferior pleasure) while she and her lover, on the second best bed enjoyed the best of Romance/and drama. The language here has obvious connotations of sexual intercourse - we can guess what his verb and her noun are and what the one is doing in the other, while the guests' dribbling suggests a less successful erotic encounter.
The poem relies on double meanings very like those we find in Shakespeare's own work. It gives a voice to someone of whom history has recorded little. The language is strictly too modern to be spoken by the historical Anne Hathaway (especially the word order and the meanings) but the lexicon (vocabulary) is not obviously anachronistic - that is, most of the words here could have been spoken by the real Anne Hathaway, though not quite with these meanings and probably not in this order.
The real story behind this poem is found in the New Testament books of Matthew (Chapter 14.6-11) and Mark (6.22-28), and took place about AD 30. The historical Salome was a daughter of Herodias and Philip (he was one of the ruling family in Palestine). She danced before the ruler, Herod Antipas (Philip's half-brother and her uncle), who promised to grant any request she might make. John the Baptist had condemned Herodias because of her affair (as would now call it) with Herod, who had put him in prison. Prompted by her mother, Salome asked for the head of John and at once he was executed. The name of Salome is not used in the gospels but is known from the Jewish historian Josephus. Oscar Wilde wrote a play about Salome, in which she is presented as in love with John the Baptist; the play ends with her being executed on Herod's orders.
Either Carol Ann Duffy does not know the history well, or she deliberately takes liberties. The head on the pillow is no part of the real story of Salome, but appears to have been stolen from the feature film, The Godfather, where a character wakes to find on the pillow beside him, the head of his prize racehorse. (In the film, this is a threat, and it works - the horse owner does what he had hitherto refused to do.)
In the poem it appears that Salome has become a serial remover of heads. She tells us that she'd done it before (presumably in the case of John the Baptist) and that she would doubtless...do it again. Having woken up with a severed head on the pillow, she cannot even remember the owner's name. So she calls for the maid has breakfast, and decides to clean up her life. As part of this regime, she decides to get rid of her lover - and the poem ends as she pulls back the sheets sticky with blood, to find his head on a platter. (Both Matthew and Mark say that John the Baptist's head was brought to Salome on a platter. For many generations of readers the platter was the most memorable and gruesome detail in the story.)
Ms. Duffy introduces all sorts of contemporary details into the poem, such as toast and butter and cigarettes, as well as modern attitudes, like a decision to get fit and turf out a lover. We also find very contemporary slang - like booze, fags and ain't life a bitch. But the basic idea of the cold and murderous woman is an old one - the Bible shows Herodias (rather than Salome) as being like this; later tradition suggests that Salome was to become like her mother.
The black humour of the poem is well served by the style - especially the piling up of rhymes: lighter, laughter, flatter, pewter, Peter and so on. This becomes especially manic in:
...as for the latter
The poem may also raise some serious questions:
Before You Were Mine
This poem is quite difficult to follow for two reasons. First, it moves very freely between the present and different times in the past, which is frequently referred to in the present tense. Second, because the title suggests romantic love but the poem is about mother and daughter. The poem is written as if spoken by Carol Ann Duffy to her mother, whose name is Marilyn. The poem comes from Mean Time (1993). On first reading, you might think that the I in the poem is a lover, but various details in the third and fourth stanzas identify the speaker as the poet. Younger readers (which include most GCSE students) may be puzzled by the way in which, once her child is born, the mother no longer goes out dancing with her friends. In 1950s Glasgow this would not have been remotely possible. Even if she could have afforded it (which is doubtful) a woman with children was expected to stay at home and look after them. Going out would be a rare luxury, no longer a regular occurrence. Motherhood was seen as a serious duty, especially among Roman Catholics.
I'm ten years away is confusing (does away mean before this or yet to come?) but the second stanza's I'm not here yet shows us that the scene at the start of the poem comes before the birth of the poet. Duffy imagines a scene she can only know from her mother's or other people's accounts of it. Marilyn, Carol Ann Duffy's mother, stands laughing with her friends on a Glasgow street corner. Thinking of the wind on the street and her mother's name suggests to Duffy the image of Marilyn Monroe with her skirt blown up by an air vent (a famous scene in the film The Seven Year Itch). She recalls her mother as young and similarly glamorous, the polka-dot dress locating this scene in the past.
Duffy contrasts the young woman's romantic fantasies with the reality of motherhood which will come ten years later: The thought of me doesn't occur/in...the fizzy, movie tomorrows/ the right walk home could bring...
In the third stanza Duffy suggests that her birth and her loud, possessive yell marked the end of her mother's happiest times. There is some poignancy as she recalls her child's fascination with her mother's high-heeled red shoes, putting her hands in them. The shoes are relics because they are no longer worn for going out. The ghost suggests that her mother is now dead, but may just indicate that the younger Marilyn is only seen in the imagination, as she clatters...over George Square. The verb here tells us that she is wearing her high-heeled shoes. The image recalls her mother's courting days. Duffy addresses her as if she is her mother's parent, asking whose are the love bites on her neck, and calling her sweetheart. The question and the endearment suggest a parent speaking to a child - a reversal of what we might expect. I see you, clear as scent deliberately mixes the senses (the technical name for this is synaesthesia), to show how a familiar smell can trigger a most vivid recollection.
In the last stanza Duffy recalls another touching memory - the mother who no longer dances teaching the dance steps to her child, on their way home from Mass - as if having fun after fulfilling her religious duties with her daughter. The dance (the Cha cha cha!) places this in the past: it seems glamorous again now but would have been deeply unfashionable when the poet was in her teens. Stamping stars suggests a contrast between the child's or her mother's (sensible) walking shoes, with hobnails that strike sparks and the delicate but impractical red high heels. And why is it the wrong pavement"? Presumably the wrong one for her mother to dance on - she should be winking in Portobello or in the centre of Glasgow, where she would go to dance as a young woman. Or perhaps the right pavement was not in Scotland at all but some even more glamorous location, Hollywood perhaps, to which the mother aspired.
This is an unusual and very generous poem. Carol Ann Duffy recognizes the sacrifice her mother made in bringing her up, and celebrates her brief period of glamour and hope and possibility. It also touches on the universal theme of the brevity (shortness) of happiness. (This is sometimes expressed by the Latin phrase carpe diem - seize the day). The form of the poem is conventional: blank verse (unrhymed pentameters) stanzas, all of five lines. A few lines run on, but most end with a pause at a punctuation mark. Note the frequent switches from past to present both in chronology and in the tenses of verbs - the confusion here seems to be intended, as if for the poet past and present are equally real and vivid. The language is very tender: the poet addresses her mother like a lover or her own child: Marilyn...sweetheart...before you were mine (repeated) and I wanted the bold girl. What is most striking is what is missing: there is no direct reference to Marilyn as the poet's mother.
It is an account of a real mother, doing her best in tough circumstances and making sacrifices for her daughter. There are trust and generosity here, so that the poem is light years away from the suspicious and unhealthy atmosphere of We Remember Your Childhood Well.
We Remember Your Childhood Well
This is a poem about denial. The speaker appears to be a mother or father (it does not matter which, as this parent speaks for both of them) reassuring a now grown-up child that he or she had a happy childhood. The reassurances are not convincing, as if there is something to hide - but the poem also makes us think of the real fears that parents have, that they will be accused later of some kind of cruelty or deprivation - so they have assembled a record of evidence (pictures and facts) to refute the child's memories. The child does not speak in the poem, but we do see his or her viewpoint, since the parent is denying or refuting things of which the child has evidently accused the parents.
The poem has a clear formal structure - the three-line stanzas have a loose rhyme scheme (moors/door, tune/boom, fear/tears and occasionally an internal rhyme occur/blur). The irregular metre is interrupted by many pauses, creating a slow and rather jerky rhythm as of disconnected statements.
The most obvious unifying feature is the way each stanza opens with a statement (a declarative) in a complete short sentence or main clause: Nobody hurt you, Your questions were answered, Nobody forced you, What you recall are impressions and Nobody sent you away. The last stanza also opens with a short sentence - but this time it is a question: What does it matter now?
The poem explores the gap between appearance and reality. In almost every case the parent does not dispute that something occurred that the child thought was bad. But the parent claims that the child has misunderstood things or remembered them not quite as they were. Partly the explanation for this is that the child's recollections are subjective impressions - which are mistaken or false memories.
The parent's reassurance is unconvincing, for various reasons - such as the way he or she shifts ground: That didn't occur. You couldn't sing anyway, cared less or the way the parent claims to know the child's own feelings better than he or she ever did - you wanted to go that day. Begged and people/You seemed to like.
The ending of the poem is very harrowing - it appears that the child blames the parents for ruining his or her life, while they deny this: nobody...laid you wide open for Hell.
Not all families are like the one shown in the poem - and perhaps young people (most of whom may not yet be parents) will see things from the viewpoint of the child whose parent speaks here. But the poem challenges us all, if we are to be parents, to find ways to give the right mixture of freedom and discipline. The poem gives a harsh and cynical view of what childhood may be at its worst - we get a more positive view in Ms. Duffy's In Mrs. Tilscher's Class (not in the Anthology) and Before You Were Mine. It is far removed from the view or parental love for children in William Blake's Songs of Innocence, but close to the harshest of his Songs of Experience.
Education for Leisure
This powerful poem explores the mind of a disturbed person, who is planning murder. We do not know if the speaker is male or female, though this barely seems to matter. What we do know is that he (or she) has a powerful sense of his own importance, and a greater sense of grievance that no one else notices him. The poem contrasts the speaker's deluded belief in his own abilities with the real genius that is creative. We do not know if the poem is based on any real person, though it has echoes of the true story of the young American woman who shot dead several of her classmates, and when asked about her reasons answered, I don't like Mondays (an episode that inspired the Boomtown Rats' rock song with this title). There may be an allusion to this in the first stanza, where the would-be killer says the day is ordinary and a sort of grey with boredom stirring...
The speaker informs us that he is going to kill something. Anything - who or what seems irrelevant, so long as the gesture is dramatic enough and gains the world's attention, because the speaker wishes not to be ignored any longer, and would like to play God.
As he kills a fly casually, he recalls doing that at school. Shakespeare. What he recalls, vaguely, is Gloucester's speech in Act 4, Scene 1 of Shakespeare's tragedy, King Lear. Gloucester, blinded by his enemies, is thinking of his son (who at this moment stands before him, pretending to be a madman and beggar). He says: As flies to wanton boys are we to the gods/They kill us for their sport... Gloucester takes the killing of flies as a metaphor for casual suffering that falls on men. The speaker here does it literally, but he also thinks of killing people literally. Gloucester's speech is a protest against cruelty, not a commendation of it - and the speaker in the poem seems to have missed the point of King Lear, which commends humanity and rebukes cruelty and violence. He thinks Shakespeare's play is not in the language he speaks, and notes that the fly is also now in another language - at least no longer in the world of the living. His comment on Shakespeare is true but not in the way he intends - of course King Lear is written in English, but its values are wholly alien to him. He commits the common error of stupid people in supposing that an author approves of the things his characters do. In reading the poem, we should not fall into the same error - Carol Ann Duffy does not want us to admire this speaker.
Mention of Shakespeare prompts the boast that he is a genius who could be anything at all, with half the chance. But we see that he has no idea of real creativity. As soon as he claims that he can change the world he limits this to something's world. He kills the goldfish and notes that the budgie is frightened (how does a budgerigar panic?) while the cat, supposedly as a recognition of his genius has hidden itself. Almost as an aside the speaker tells us that he is unemployed, and goes into town for signing on.
Finally, as there is nothing left to kill, he phones a radio talk show to assert his genius - but is cut off by the presenter. So he goes out with a bread knife. The poem has been presented as a first-person monologue throughout, but ends by addressing the reader as if he or she were the first human victim - I touch your arm.
The poem's title seems ironic - we see that the speaker's education has done him little good. It has not enabled him to find work, nor to cope with the boredom of enforced leisure. But this may not be the fault of the school and teachers - if the response to King Lear is anything to go by (remembering a metaphor to justify the violence against which it was meant to be a protest).
The poem is in five stanzas, each of four lines (quatrains). They are unrhymed and the metre is not regular, though many lines are in the form known as Alexandrine (six iambic feet). The lines are mostly end stopped, and every stanza concludes with a full stop.
The egotism of the speaker appears in the repeated use of I - can you count how many times I, me and my appear?
Apart from the reference to King Lear, there is an even more sinister allusion that follows the flushing of the goldfish down the bog. The speaker tells us: I see that it is good - an obvious echo of the creation story in Genesis. After each day's work of creation, we read that: God saw that it was good. We know that the sick character here wishes to play God, but he can only destroy where God and Shakespeare create.
The poem shows us the prelude to violence, but does not describe any violence against a real human being - the ending hints at this. Perhaps what happens next depends on the choice of victim, as well as things we do not know - whether the speaker has the strength and speed to harm the victim, or even whether he or she has the resolution to kill. But perhaps this person does not need much resolution, since he or she seems not to care about others' feelings or even to be capable of connecting with other people.
And this may make us think about what else the poem does not tell us:
The poem may seem mildly humorous on a first reading - if you study it in school, then some people may laugh when reading the poem or listening to a reading. The cat's hiding, the budgie's panicking and the shameless account of flushing the goldfish down the bog may make us smirk. But it is not a poem that still seems funny after repeated readings. It can be seen as a cautionary tale about what happens to those who have nothing to do, and tire of waiting for other people to give them a living or some kind of recognition, that they have not earned.
As an explanation of how criminal violence happens, the poem is clear enough and quite convincing. Carol Ann Duffy portrays a character we may recognize from fiction and from real-life reports. It has much in common with Stealing, though the criminal there, while very unsympathetic still seems vaguely in touch with other people. The speaker here lacks the criminal experience and low cunning of the thief in Stealing. He is a weaker character by far, but less predictable.
This poem (based on a real event) is written in the first person. The speaker in it is very obviously not the poet. Carol Ann Duffy writes sympathetically in that she tries to understand this anti-social character, but he is not at all likeable. What she shows is not so much an intelligent criminal but someone for whom theft is just a response to boredom. Throughout the poem are hints at constructive pursuits (making a snowman) and artistic objects (a guitar, a bust of Shakespeare). The thief steals and destroys but cannot make anything.
The speaker is apparently relating his various thefts, perhaps to a police officer, perhaps to a social worker or probation officer. He realizes at the end of the poem that the person he is speaking to (like the poet and the reader of the poem, perhaps) cannot understand his outlook: You don't understand a word I'm saying doesn't refer to his words literally, so much as the ideas he expresses. The poem is rather bleak, as if anti-social behaviour is almost inevitable. The speaker sees the consequences of his actions but has no compassion for his victims.
The thief begins as if repeating a question someone has asked him, to identify the most unusual things he has stolen. The poet's admiration of the snowman is the closest he comes to affection, but he cares more for this inanimate object than the living human children who have made it. And he wants what has already been made - he cannot see for himself how to make his own snowman. The thief is morally confused - he sees not taking what you want as giving in, as if you might as well be dead as accept conventional morality. But he alienates us by saying that he enjoyed taking the snowman because he knew that the theft would upset the children. Life's tough is said as if to justify this. The sequel comes when the thief tries to reassemble the snowman. Not surprisingly (snow is not a permanent material) he didn't look the same, so the thief attacks him. All he is left with is lumps of snow. This could almost be a metaphor for the self-defeating nature of his thefts.
The thief tells us boastfully he sometimes steals things he doesn't need, yet it seems that he always steals what he does not need and cannot use. He breaks in out of curiosity, to have a look but does not understand what he sees. He is pathetic, as he seems anxious to make a mark of some kind, whether leaving a mess or steaming up mirrors with his breath. He casually mentions how he might pinch a camera - it is worth little to him, but much to those whose memories it has recorded.
The final stanza seems more honest. The bravado has gone and the thief's real motivation emerges - boredom, which comes from his inability to make or do anything which gives pleasure. The theft of the guitar is typically self-deceiving. He thinks he might/learn to play but the reader knows this will not happen - it takes time and patience. Stealing the bust of Shakespeare also seems ironic to the reader. The thief takes an image of perhaps the greatest creative talent the world has ever seen - but without any sense of what it stands for, or of the riches of Shakespeare's drama. The final line, which recalls the poem's conversational opening, is very apt: it as if the speaker has sensed not just that the person he is speaking to is disturbed by his confession but also that the reader of the poem doesn't understand him.
This poem is colloquial but the speaking voice here is very distinct. Sometimes the speaker uses striking images (a mucky ghost) and some unlikely vocabulary (he looked magnificent) but he also uses clichés (Life's tough). Single words are written as sentences (Mirrors...Again...Boredom). The metre of the poem is loose but some lines are true pentameters (He didn't look the same. I took a run...). Mostly the lines are not end-stopped: the breaks for punctuation are in the middles of lines, to create the effect of improvised natural speech. The speaker is trying to explain his actions, but condemns himself out of his own mouth.
If we compare him to the speaker in Education for Leisure it is hard to say which is more dislikeable. This one is more sane and predictable - he is a serial offender, but perhaps poses little risk to people's life and limb. The character in Education for Leisure is far less in control of his or her actions and may well be insane. It is interesting, too, to note that both of these characters refer to Shakespeare.
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